OZONE EFFECT PATHOGENS

Ozone is a naturally occurring gas created from oxygen atoms. The oxygen molecule is made up of 2 oxygen atoms. These oxygen molecules are broken and single oxygen atoms cannot exist alone without regrouping back into di-atomic oxygen molecules. During this recombination stage some atoms will regroup into loosely bonded tri-atomic oxygen. This new molecule is called Ozone.

Ozone is a very strong oxidant and an ideal chemical-free purification and a disinfecting agent.

Disinfection by tri-atomic oxygen (Ozone) occurs through the rupture of the cell wall. This is a more efficient method than Chlorine, which depends upon diffusion into the cell protoplasm and inactivation of the enzymes. Its killing action upon bacteria, viruses, fungi, and in many species of protozoa, serve as the basis for its increasing use in disinfecting municipal water supplies in cities worldwide.

Ozone is:

  • 10 times more effective than chlorine;

  • 25 times more effective than Hypochlorous Acid (HOCI);

  • 2.500 times more effective than Hypochlorite (OCI);

  • 3.000 times faster to purify water than chlorine;

  • 5.000 times more effective than Chloramine (NH2CI).

BACTERIA

Bacteria are member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms which have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some which can cause disease. Bacteria often attach to surfaces and form dense aggregations called biofilms, and larger formations known as microbial mats. By other words we can say that Bacteria are microscopically small, single-cell creatures having a primitive structure. They take up foodstuffs and release metabolic products, and multiply by division. The bacteria body is sealed by a relatively solid-cell membrane. Their vital processes are controlled by a complex enzymatic system.

Ozone is exceptionally good at tackling harmful bacteria and stopping it dead, because it have highly reactive properties, which means that it simply reacts with the bacteria and destroys it. Ozone interferes with bacterial cell metabolism by inhibiting the enzymatic control system.When an ozone molecule meets a bacterial cell, it starts to break it down by making a hole in the bacterium’s cell wall. This is what holds the cell together, and without it the bacteria will begin to fall apart. This will happen countless times, ozone molecules coming into contact with the bacteria, making the same holes and rapidly eradicating the bacteria. A sufficient amount of ozone breaks through the cell membrane, destroying the bacteria.

BacteriaDosageBacteriaDosage
Achromobacter Butyri NCI-9404Ozone susceptiblePhytomonas TumefaciensOzone susceptible
Aeromonas Harveyi NC-2Ozone susceptiblePenicilliumOzone susceptible. 2 ppm for 60 minutes
Aeromonas Salmonicida NC-1102 Ozone susceptibleProteus VulgarisVery susceptible
BacillusDestroyed by 0.2 m/I within 30 seconds Pseudomonas AeruginosaVery susceptible
Bacillus AnthracisOzone susceptiblePseudomonas Fluorscens (Bioflims)Very susceptible
Bacillus Cereus99.99% destruction after 5-min at 0.12 mg/l in waterPseudomonas PutidaVery susceptible
Bacillus CoagulansVery susceptibleSalmonellaVery susceptible
Bacillus Globigii
Very susceptibleSalmonella CholeraesuisVery susceptible
Bacillus Klebs-Loffler
Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/lSalmonella EnteritidisVery susceptible
Bacillus Megatherium Sp.99% destruction after 5-min at 2.3 mg/l in waterSalmonella ParatyphiVery susceptible
Bacillus Paratyphosus
Very susceptibleSalmonella Typhimurium99.99% destruction at 0.25 mg/l for 1.67 minutes in water
Bacillus Prodigiosus
Very susceptibleSalmonella TyphosaVery susceptible
Bacillus Subtilis90% reduction at 0.10-PPM for 33 minutesSarcina LuteaOzone susceptible
Bacillus Stearothermophilus Very susceptibleSchistosomaVery susceptible
Clostridium Botulinum0.4 to 0.5 mg/l threshold valueSeratia MarcescensOzone susceptible
Clostridium Sporogenes0.4 to 0.5 mg/l threshold valueShigella DysenteriaeVery susceptible
Clostridium Tetoni Ozone susceptibleShigella FlexnariaVery susceptible
CryptosporidiumOzone susceptibleShigella ParadysenteriaeVery susceptible
Coliphage Ozone susceptibleSpirllum RubrumOzone susceptible
Corynebacterium DiphthriaeOzone susceptibleStaph Epidermidis90% reduction at 0.1-ppm for 1.7 min
DiphthriaeDestroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/lStaphylococciDestroyed by 1.5 to 2.0 mg/l
Eberthella TyphosaDestroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/lStreptococcusDestroyed by 0.2 mg/l within 30 seconds
Endamoebic Cysts Ozone susceptibleStreptococcus CVery susceptible
Escherichia Coli Destroyed by 0.2 mg/l within 30 seconds in airStreptococcus Faecalis99.99% at 2ppm for 23 to 26 seconds
Flavorbacterium SP A-3Ozone susceptibleStreptococcus HemolyticusVery susceptible
Legionella Pneumophila99.99% destruction at 0.32 mg/l for 20 minutes in distilled waterStreptococcus LactisVery susceptible
Leptospira Canicola Ozone susceptibleStreptococcus SalivariusVery susceptible
Listeria Monocytogenes99.99% at 2ppm for 3 to 11 secondsStreptococcus Viridans Very susceptible
Micrococcus CandidusOzone susceptible. 0.02 to 0.26 ppm for <1.67 minutesTyphus abdominalis (Eberth Bacillus)Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/l
Micrococcus Caseolyticus KM-15Ozone susceptibleTorula RubraOzone susceptible
Micrococcus SpharaeroidesOzone susceptibleVibrio Alginolyticus & AngwillarumVery susceptible
Mycobacterium avium99.9% with a CT value of 0.17 in waterVibrio CholeraVery susceptible
Mycobacterium foruitum90% destruction at 0.25 mg/l for 1.6 minutes in waterVibrio CommaVery susceptible
Mycobacterium LepraeVery susceptibleVirrio ParahaemolyticusOzone susceptible
Mycobacterium TuberculosisVery susceptibleVirrio Ichthyodermis NC-407Ozone susceptible
Neisseria CatarrhalisOzone susceptible

VIRUS

Viruses are small, independent particles, built of crystals and macromolecules. Unlike bacteria, they multiply only within the host cell. Viruses have no protections against oxidative stress. The enveloped viruses are usually more sensitive to physical and chemical challenges than the naked virus.

Ozone destroys viruses by diffusing through the protein coat into the nucleic acid core, where it damages viral RNA. At higher concentrations, by oxidation, ozone destroys the virus’ exterior protein shell so that DNA or RNA structures are affected.

Numerous families of viruses including poliovirus I and 2, human rotaviruses, Norwalk virus, Parvoviruses, and Hepatitis A, B and non-AorB, among many others, are susceptible to the virucid actions of ozone.

VirusDosageVirusDosage
Adenovirus (type 7a)76% reduction at <0.01 mg/l for 10 minutes in waterGD V11 VirusDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l
Bacteriophage f299.99% destruction at 0.41 mg/l for 10 seconds in waterHepatitis A99.5% reduction at 0.25 mg/l for 2 seconds in phosphate buffer
Coxsackie A995% destruction at 0.035 mg/l for 10 seconds in waterHerpesDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l
Coxsackie B3 Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds by 0.1 0.8 mg/lInfluenza0.4 to 0.5 mg/l
Coxackie B5 99.99% destruction at 4.1 mg/l for 2.5 minutes in sludge effluentKlebs-LofflerDestroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/l
Cryptosporidium99.9% destruction at 4.7 mg/l in 25ºC water for 1 minutePoliomyelitisKill of 99.999% with 0.3 to 0.4 mg/l in 3 to 4 minutes
Echovirus 1, 5 and 1299% destruction at 0.26 mg/l for 10 minutes in 20ºC waterPoliomyelitis (type 1)99.5% destruction at 0.25 mg/l for 1.6 minutes in water
Echovirus 29 This virus most sensitive to ozone. 99.999% killed after a contact time of 1 minute at 1 mg/l of ozoneRhabdovirusDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds
EncephalomyocarditisDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/lRotavirus25 mg/ml decreased by 8-9 log10 TCID50/ml
Enteric Virus95% destruction at 4.1 mg/l for 29 minutes in raw wastewaterStomatitisDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l
EnterovirusDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/lTobacco MosaicDecreased with the advance of ozonization
Feline Calicivirus99% destruction at 0.02 mg/l for in 5ºC waterVisicularDestroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l

FUNGI & MOLD

A fungus is a eukaryotic organism. Yeasts, molds and mushrooms are examples of fungi. Like animals, humans and most bacteria, all fungi are heterotrophs (this means that they get their energy by eating organic substances).

Ozone destroys fungi and mold by diffusing through the fungal wall and into the cytoplasm, disrupting the organelles that direct cell function.

Fungi families inhibited and destroyed by exposure to ozone include Candida, Aspergilus, Histoplasma, Actinomycoses, and Cryptococcus. The walls of fungi are multilayered and re composed of approximately 80% carbohydrates and 10% of proteins and glycoproteins.

PathogenDosagePathogenDosage
Alternaria Solani Ozone susceptibleOspora Lactis (white) Ozone susceptible
Aspergillus Candidus Ozone susceptiblePenicillium Cyclopium Ozone susceptible
Aspergillus Flavus (yellowish-green) Ozone susceptiblePenicillium Chrysogenum Ozone susceptible
Aspergillus Glaucus (bluish-green) Ozone susceptiblePenicillium Citrinum Ozone susceptible
Aspergillus Niger (black mount)Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/IPenicillium Digitatum (olive) Ozone susceptible
Aspergillus Oryzac Ozone susceptiblePenicillium Glaucum Ozone susceptible
Aspergillus Saitoi Ozone susceptiblePenicillium Expansum (olive) Ozone susceptible
Aspergillus Terreus Ozone susceptiblePenicillium Egyptiacum Ozone susceptible
Botrytis Allii Ozone susceptiblePenicillium Roqueforti (green) Ozone susceptible
Botrytis Cinerea 3.8 mg/l for 2 minutesPythium Ultimum Ozone susceptible
Colletotrichum Lagenariu Ozone susceptiblePhytophthora Erythroseptica Ozone susceptible
Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Lycopersici1.1 mg/l for 10 minutesPhytophthora Parasitica3.8 mg/l for 2 minutes
Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Melonogea99.99 % destruction at 1.1 mg/l for 20 minutesRhizoctonia Solani Ozone susceptible
Grotrichum Ozone susceptibleRhizopus Nigricans (black) Ozone susceptible
Monilinia Fruiticola Ozone susceptibleRhizopus Stolonifer Ozone susceptible
Monilinia Laxa Ozone susceptibleSclerotium Rolfsii Ozone susceptible
Mucor Recomosus A & B (white-gray) Ozone susceptibleSclerotinia Sclerotiorum Ozone susceptible
Mucor Piriformis 3.8 mg/l for 2 minutes

OTHER PATHOGENS

AlgaeCystsProtozoaYeast
Chlorella Vulgaris Cryptosporidium ParvumParameciumBaker’s Yeast
ThamnidiumGiardia LambliaNematode EggsCandida Albicans (all forms)
Trichoderma VirideGiardia Muris Chlorella Vulgaris (algae)Common Yeast Cake
Verticillium Albo-Atrum Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Verticillium Dahliae
Saccharomyces Ellipsoideus
Saccharomyces sp.

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