GMPs Appendix A: Annotated Bibliography on Food Safety Problems and Recommended Controls

Many of you, are aware of FDA rules and regulations, but before we share some information about it, let´s us give a quick Overview on FDA.

“FDA is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services.

The FDA’s organization consists of the Office of the Commissioner and four directorates overseeing the core functions of the agency: Medical Products and Tobacco, Foods, Global Regulatory Operations and Policy, and Operations. “

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In Europe and all over the world everyone take in consideration the regulations set by FDA.

Now let´s see a few notes about Ozone related to Annotated Bibliography on Food Safety Problems and Recommended Controls.

Table A-1: Summary of Literature Findings on Microbiological Safety Issues and Preventive Controls


Source Industry/Products Problem/Risk Preventive Controls Suggested
FDA/CFSAN, 2001c

Fresh and fresh-cut produce

  • Manure and biosolids

  • Water for agricultural uses

  • Improper postharvest packing, cooling, and storage practices

  • Temperature control

  • Physical removal of microorganisms

  • Use of effective GRAS cleaning agents

  • Ozone treatment

  • Irradiation

  • Biocontrol

FDA/CFSAN, 1999c

Fresh unpasteurized apple cider

  • Contamination through direct/indirect contact with animal feces during growing and harvesting of apples

  • Pathogen migration through the flower end or breaks in the apple skin

  • Culling

  • Initial washing

  • Prompt processing or refrigerated holding

  • Final culling, washing, and brushing

  • A closed processing system

  • Equipment sanitation

  • Environmental sanitation

  • Employee hygiene

  • Implementation of HACCP

  • Pasteurization

  • UV treatment

  • High pressure sterilization

  • Electric resistance heating

  • Aseptic packaging

  • Ultrafiltration

  • Pulsed electric field

  • Electromagnetic fields

  • Pulsed light

  • Ozone treatment

  • Hot water rinses

  • Irradiation

  • Freezing and thawing

  • Redundant processing controls

  • Use of sanitizer dips and sprays and preservatives

  • Microbiological testing of products

Neff, 1999

Frozen vegetables

Ineffectiveness of chlorine (widely used to decontaminate process water) under certain circumstances

  • Peroxyacetic acid

  • Ozone

  • Ultraviolet radiation

Young, 2003

Not specified

Equipment that is not designed to be cleaned with the help of automation

  • Automated sanitation systems

  • Transfer of sanitation duties from the third to second or first shifts and to better-trained employees

  • Use of ozone (instead of chlorine) as disinfectant

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