Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance (called solute) to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent. Usually we hear of oxygen or dissolved O2. It means that O2 is soluble in water. Ozone gas (O3) is 13 times more soluble in water than O2.
Ozone is soluble in many substances, forming either stable or metastable solutions. Under practicable conditions in water, ozone is more soluble than oxygen but forms a metastable solution.
The solubility of gases in liquid media is described by Henry’s law (Henry’s law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas over the liquid). As Henry said this law can only be applied on gases that do not chemically change in water, during transfer.
Conditions that will affect the level of solubility of a gas in water:
Water pressure: the higher the pressure, the greater the solubility.
Gas pressure: pressurized gas, ie gas that is at an increased pressure, being applied in water, also improves efficiency (Increased pressure, will increase solubility).
Concentration: If the gas you are putting into the water is in an increased concentration, this will allow for additional solubility.
The efficiency of the diffuser, whose purpose is to transfer the ozone into the water.
Water at 30º C
will have less ozone bubbles than 10º C.
Water at 10 ° C
will have more ozone bubbles than 30 ° C.
It is more complicated to predict ozone solubility than other gases, because the solubility of ozone is influenced by several factors. The degree of solubility of the ozone gas depends on the concentration in the gas and therefore depends on the partial pressure. In addition to the partial pressure, other important factors influencing the ozone solubility are the temperature, the pH and the concentration of ions in the solution.
In summary, the solubility of ozone in water can be increased by:
Increase the concentration of ozone in the feed gas;
Growing air pressure;
Decreasing water temperature;
Decreasing the amount of solutes;
Decreasing the pH.
The table below lists the solubility of 100% ozone in pure water, for the range of 0ºC – 60ºC. This values were divided by 40, 20 and 10, respectively, to obtain the solubility for 2.5%, 5% and 10% by weight (wt.) ozone concentrations.
|Temperature (ºC)||mg/l (PPM)||mg/l (PPM)|
(2.5% by wt. O3)
(5% by wt. O3)
(10% by wt. O3)
Source: Ulmann’s, 1991
Different temperature and ozone concentration plays on ozone solubility into water. This shows that a small change in water temperature may create a large difference in potential ozone dissolved into water. Also, changes in ozone concentration (dry air to oxygen) will change the ozone solubility dramatically.
The table below shows the difference that water pressure causes on Ozone Solubility for an ozone concentration of 6% by weight and water temperature of 15ºC.
6% O3 at 15ºC (S=0.31)
|0 PSIG (1 atm)||26.598|
|5 PSIG (1.34 atm)||35.64132|
|10 PSIG (1.68 atm)||44.68464|
|15 PSIG (2 atm)||53.196|
|20 PSIG (2.36 atm)||62.77128|
|25 PSIG (2.7 atm)||71.8146|
|30 PSIG (3 atm)||79.794|