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Ozone is a world that still has a lot to explore, discover its effects on pathogens.
So, ozone is a naturally occurring gas created from oxygen atoms. The oxygen molecule is made up of 2 oxygen atoms. These oxygen molecules are broken and single oxygen atoms cannot exist alone without regrouping back into di-atomic oxygen molecules. During this recombination stage some atoms will regroup into loosely bonded tri-atomic oxygen. This new molecule is called Ozone.
Ozone is a very strong oxidant, an ideal chemical-free purification and also a disinfecting agent. Learn more about ozone effects on pathogens below!
How does it work?
Disinfection by tri-atomic oxygen (Ozone) occurs through the rupture of the cell wall. So, this is a more efficient method than Chlorine, which depends upon diffusion into the cell protoplasm and inactivation of the enzymes. So, its killing action upon bacteria, viruses, fungi, and in many species of protozoa, serves as the basis for its increasing use in disinfecting municipal water supplies in cities worldwide.
10 times more effective than chlorine;
25 times more effective than Hypochlorous Acid (HOCl);
2.500 times more effective than Hypochlorite (OCl);
3.000 times faster to purify water than chlorine;
5.000 times more effective than Chloramine (NH2Cl).
Ozone Effects on Pathogens
As can be seen, bacteria are member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms which have cell walls but lack organelles and also an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease. Bacteria often attach to surfaces and form dense aggregations called biofilms, and larger formations known as microbial mats. By other words we can say that Bacteria are microscopically small, single-cell creatures having a primitive structure. They take up foodstuffs and release metabolic products, and multiply by division. The bacteria body is sealed by a relatively solid-cell membrane. Their vital processes are controlled by a complex enzymatic system.
Ozone is exceptionally good at tackling harmful bacteria and killing them, because it has highly reactive properties, which means that it simply reacts with the bacteria and destroys it. Ozone interferes with bacterial cell metabolism by inhibiting the enzymatic control system. When an ozone molecule meets a bacterial cell, it starts to break it down by making a hole in the bacterium’s cell wall. This is what holds the cell together, and without it the bacteria will begin to fall apart. Most important, this will happen countless times, ozone molecules coming into contact with the bacteria, making the same holes and rapidly eradicating the bacteria. A sufficient amount of ozone breaks through the cell membrane, destroying the bacteria.
|Achromobacter Butyri NCI-9404||Ozone susceptible||Phytomonas Tumefaciens||Ozone susceptible|
|Aeromonas Harveyi NC-2||Ozone susceptible||Penicillium||Ozone susceptible. 2 ppm for 60 minutes|
|Aeromonas Salmonicida NC-1102||Ozone susceptible||Proteus Vulgaris||Very susceptible|
|Bacillus||Destroyed by 0.2mg/I within 30 seconds||Pseudomonas Aeruginosa||Very susceptible|
|Bacillus Anthracis||Ozone susceptible. Human pathogen that causes anthrax in sheep, sheep, cantle and pigs.||Pseudomonas Fluorscens (Bioflims)||Very susceptible|
|Bacillus Cereus||99.99% destruction after 5-min at 0.12 mg/l in water||Pseudomonas Putida||Very susceptible|
|Bacillus Coagulans||Very susceptible||Salmonella||Very susceptible|
|Bacillus Globigii||Very susceptible||Salmonella Choleraesuis||Very susceptible|
|Bacillus Klebs-Loffler||Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/l||Salmonella Enteritidis||Very susceptible|
|Bacillus Megatherium Sp.||99% destruction after 5-min at 2.3 mg/l in water||Salmonella Paratyphi||Very susceptible|
|Bacillus Paratyphosus||Very susceptible||Salmonella Typhimurium||99.99% destruction at 0.25 mg/l for 1.67 minutes in water|
|Bacillus Prodigiosus||Very susceptible||Salmonella Typhosa||Very susceptible|
|Bacillus Subtilis||90% reduction at 0.10-PPM for 33 minutes||Sarcina Lutea||Ozone susceptible|
|Bacillus Stearothermophilus||Very susceptible||Schistosoma||Very susceptible|
|Clostridium Botulinum||0.4 to 0.5 mg/l threshold value. Its toxin paralyzes the central nervous system, being a poison multiplying in food and meals||Seratia Marcescens||Ozone susceptible|
|Clostridium Sporogenes||0.4 to 0.5 mg/l threshold value||Shigella Dysenteriae||Very susceptible|
|Clostridium Tetoni||Ozone susceptible||Shigella Flexnaria||Very susceptible|
|Cryptosporidium||Ozone susceptible||Shigella Paradysenteriae||Very susceptible|
|Coliphage||Ozone susceptible||Spirllum Rubrum||Ozone susceptible|
|Corynebacterium Diphthriae||Ozone susceptible||Staph Epidermidis||90% reduction at 0.1-ppm for 1.7 min|
|Diphthriae||Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/l||Staphylococci||Destroyed by 1.5 to 2.0 mg/l|
|Eberthella Typhosa||Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/l||Streptococcus||Destroyed by 0.2 mg/l within 30 seconds|
|Endamoebic Cysts||Ozone susceptible||Streptococcus C||Very susceptible|
|Escherichia Coli||Destroyed by 0.2 mg/l within 30 seconds in air||Streptococcus Faecalis||99.99% at 2ppm for 23 to 26 seconds|
|Flavorbacterium SP A-3||Ozone susceptible||Streptococcus Hemolyticus||Very susceptible|
|Legionella Pneumophila||99.99% destruction at 0.32 mg/l for 20 minutes in distilled water||Streptococcus Lactis||Very susceptible|
|Leptospira Canicola||Ozone susceptible||Streptococcus Salivarius||Very susceptible|
|Listeria Monocytogenes||99.99% at 2ppm for 3 to 11 seconds||Streptococcus Viridans||Very susceptible|
|Micrococcus Candidus||Ozone susceptible. 0.02 to 0.26 ppm for <1.67 minutes||Typhus abdominalis (Eberth Bacillus)||Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/l|
|Micrococcus Caseolyticus KM-15||Ozone susceptible||Torula Rubra||Ozone susceptible|
|Micrococcus Spharaeroides||Ozone susceptible||Vibrio Alginolyticus & Angwillarum||Very susceptible|
|Mycobacterium avium||99.9% with a CT value of 0.17 in water||Vibrio Cholera||Very susceptible|
|Mycobacterium foruitum||90% destruction at 0.25 mg/l for 1.6 minutes in water||Vibrio Comma||Very susceptible|
|Mycobacterium Leprae||Very susceptible||Virrio Parahaemolyticus||Ozone susceptible|
|Mycobacterium Tuberculosis||Very susceptible||Virrio Ichthyodermis NC-407||Ozone susceptible|
|Neisseria Catarrhalis||Ozone susceptible|
Firstly, viruses are small, independent particles, built of crystals and macromolecules. In contrast to the bacteria, they multiply only within the host cell. Not to mention that viruses have no protections against oxidative stress. The enveloped viruses are usually more sensitive to physical and chemical challenges than the naked virus.
Ozone destroys viruses by diffusing through the protein coat into the nucleic acid core, where it damages viral RNA. At higher concentrations, by oxidation, ozone destroys the virus’ exterior protein shell so that DNA or RNA structures are affected.
For instance, numerous families of viruses including poliovirus I and 2, human rotaviruses, Norwalk virus, SARS-CoV, Parvoviruses, and Hepatitis A, B and non-AorB, among many others, are susceptible to the virucid actions of ozone.
|Adenovirus (type 7a)||76% reduction at <0.01 mg/l for 10 minutes in water||Hepatitis A||99.5% reduction at 0.25 mg/l for 2 seconds in phosphate buffer|
|Bacteriophage f2||99.99% destruction at 0.41 mg/l for 10 seconds in water||Herpes||Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l|
|Coxsackie A9||95% destruction at 0.035 mg/l for 10 seconds in water||Influenza||0.4 to 0.5 mg/l|
|Coxsackie B3||Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds by 0.1 0.8 mg/l||Klebs-Loffler||Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/l|
|Coxackie B5||99.99% destruction at 4.1 mg/l for 2.5 minutes in sludge effluent||Poliomyelitis||Kill of 99.999% with 0.3 to 0.4 mg/l in 3 to 4 minutes|
|Cryptosporidium||99.9% destruction at 4.7 mg/l in 25ºC water for 1 minute||Poliomyelitis (type 1)||99.5% destruction at 0.25 mg/l for 1.6 minutes in water|
|Echovirus 1, 5 and 12||99% destruction at 0.26 mg/l for 10 minutes in 20ºC water||Rhabdovirus||Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8mg/l|
|Echovirus 29||This virus is the most sensitive to ozone. 99.999% killed after a contact time of 1 minute at 1 mg/l of ozone||Rotavirus||25 mg/ml decreased by 8-9 log10 TCID50/ml|
|Encephalomyocarditis||Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l||SARS-CoV-2||>90% - 0,05 to 0,1ppm by 10 hours (a harmless concentration for man)|
|Enteric Virus||95% destruction at 4.1 mg/l for 29 minutes in raw wastewater||Stomatitis||Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l|
|Enterovirus||Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l||Tobacco Mosaic||Decreased with the advance of ozonization|
|Feline Calicivirus||99% destruction at 0.02 mg/l for in 5ºC water||Visicular||Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l|
|GD V11 Virus||Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/l|
Fungi & Mold
A fungus is a eukaryotic organism. Both yeasts, molds and mushrooms are examples of fungi. Like animals, humans and most bacteria, also all fungi are heterotrophs (this means that they get their energy by eating organic substances).
So, ozone destroys fungi and mold by diffusing through the fungal wall and into the cytoplasm, disrupting the organelles that direct cell function.
For example, fungi families inhibited and destroyed by exposure to ozone include Candida, Aspergilus, Histoplasma, Actinomycoses, and Cryptococcus. The walls of fungi are multilayered and recomposed of approximately 80% carbohydrates and 10% of proteins and glycoproteins.
|Alternaria Solani||Ozone susceptible||Ospora Lactis (white)||Ozone susceptible|
|Aspergillus Candidus||Ozone susceptible||Penicillium Cyclopium||Ozone susceptible|
|Aspergillus Flavus (yellowish-green)||Ozone susceptible||Penicillium Chrysogenum||Ozone susceptible|
|Aspergillus Glaucus (bluish-green)||Ozone susceptible||Penicillium Citrinum||Ozone susceptible|
|Aspergillus Niger (black mount)||Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/I||Penicillium Digitatum (olive)||Ozone susceptible|
|Aspergillus Oryzac||Ozone susceptible||Penicillium Glaucum||Ozone susceptible|
|Aspergillus Saitoi||Ozone susceptible||Penicillium Expansum (olive)||Ozone susceptible|
|Aspergillus Terreus||Ozone susceptible||Penicillium Egyptiacum||Ozone susceptible|
|Botrytis Allii||Ozone susceptible||Penicillium Roqueforti (green)||Ozone susceptible|
|Botrytis Cinerea||3.8 mg/l for 2 minutes||Pythium Ultimum||Ozone susceptible|
|Colletotrichum Lagenariu||Ozone susceptible||Phytophthora Erythroseptica||Ozone susceptible|
|Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Lycopersici||1.1 mg/l for 10 minutes||Phytophthora Parasitica||3.8 mg/l for 2 minutes|
|Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Melonogea||99.99 % destruction at 1.1 mg/l for 20 minutes||Rhizoctonia Solani||Ozone susceptible|
|Grotrichum||Ozone susceptible||Rhizopus Nigricans (black)||Ozone susceptible|
|Monilinia Fruiticola||Ozone susceptible||Rhizopus Stolonifer||Ozone susceptible|
|Monilinia Laxa||Ozone susceptible||Sclerotium Rolfsii||Ozone susceptible|
|Mucor Recomosus A & B (white-gray)||Ozone susceptible||Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum||Ozone susceptible|
|Mucor Piriformis||3.8 mg/l for 2 minutes|
|Chlorella Vulgaris||Cryptosporidium Parvum||Paramecium||Baker’s Yeast|
|Thamnidium||Giardia Lamblia||Nematode Eggs||Candida Albicans (all forms)|
|Trichoderma Viride||Giardia Muris||Chlorella Vulgaris (algae)||Common Yeast Cake|
|Verticillium Albo-Atrum||Saccharomyces Cerevisiae|
|Verticillium Dahliae||Saccharomyces Ellipsoideus|