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Ozone /ˈoʊzoʊn/, or trioxygen, is formed by the combination of three oxygen atoms (triatomic form of oxygen).
Ozone (O3) is a highly reactive gas composed of three oxygen atoms that results in a bluish irritating gas with a pungent odor. It is both a natural and a man-made product that occurs in the Earth’s upper atmosphere (the stratosphere – it absorbs ultraviolet rays, thereby preventing them from reaching the surface of the earth) and lower atmosphere (the troposphere – an air pollutant), produced when an electric spark or ultraviolet light is passed through air or oxygen. Ozone can be used to oxidize, disinfect, bleaching, sterilizing water, purifying air, etc.
Appearance and Odor
Ozone is a colorless to pale blue gas (blue when liquefied) with a strong and distinctively pungent smell (a smell similar to the sense after a thunderstorm).
At -111,9ºC it condenses to form a dark blue liquid, at temperatures below -192,2ºC it forms a violet-black solid.
Physical Ozone Properties
|Molecular Weight||47,98 g/mol|
|-192,2ºC / -314,5ºF / 80,7ºK|
|-111,9ºC / -169,4ºF / 161,3ºK|
Density at 0ºC
Solubility in Water at 0ºC
|-12,15ºC / 10,1ºF / 261ºK|
Ozone vs. Oxygen
|General||Potential harmful gas,|
when exposed to quantities greater than established
|Harmless gas, vital for survival|
|Smell||Strong and distinctively pungent smell|
(a smell similar to the sense after a thunderstorm)
|Water Solubity (at 0 ºC)||0,64||0,049|
|Density||2,144 g/L||1,429 g/L|
|Stability||Chemically less stable||Chemically more stable|
|Electrochemical Potential (Volts)||02:07||01:23|
|Molecular Weight||47,98 g/mol||32 g/mol|
|Boliling Point (at 760mmHg)||-111,9 ºC||-182,96 ºC|
|Fusion Point||-192,7 ºC||-218,4 ºC|
|Specific weight of gas in liquid|
form at -183 °C
|Solubility (cm³) in 100ml|
of water at 0 ºC
A material’s oxidation potential indicates how rapidly it may oxidize another. Because of its high oxidation potential, ozone is particularly effective at dissolving and eliminating a wide spectrum of pollutants and poisons.
One of the most important advantages of ozone is its ability to effectively eliminate germs, viruses, and other hazardous organisms due to its high oxidation potential. As a result, it is an excellent choice for a wide range of applications, including food processing, air filtering, and water treatment.
The capacity of ozone to oxidize chemical agents such as herbicides and insecticides provides further important benefits. As a result, it is efficient in cleaning and sanitizing surfaces, as well as odor removal.
In addition to ozone, there are additional oxidants that are commonly employed in diverse applications, such as chlorine, hydrogen peroxide and permanganate.
When comparing ozone’s oxidation potential to those of these other oxidants, it’s vital to remember that ozone has a very high oxidation potential. In fact, of all regularly employed oxidants, ozone has the largest oxidation potential. This implies it is extremely effective at breaking down and removing various pollutants and impurities.
One of the primary advantages of ozone over other oxidants is that it produces no hazardous consequences.
Ozone has some key advantages over chlorine when it comes to water treatment. For example, ozone does not leave behind harmful byproducts, whereas chlorine can produce trihalomethanes (THMs) and other disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that can be harmful to human health. Ozone is more effective at eliminating a wider range of contaminants than chlorine. For example, while chlorine can effectively eliminate bacteria and viruses, ozone is also effective at breaking down and removing organic compounds, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, that can be present in water sources.
Hydrogen peroxide, for example, can generate damaging hydroxyl radicals, whereas permanganate can leave behind manganese oxide. Ozone, on the other hand, degrades into oxygen with no hazardous consequences.
|Fluorine||3,05||F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e– → 2HF|
F2(g) + 2e– → 2F–
|Hydroxyl Radical||2,80||OH + H+ + e– → H2O|
|Ferrate||2,20||FeO42- + 8H+ + 3e– → Fe3+ + 4H2O|
|Ozone||2,08||O3(g) + 2H+ + 2e– → O2(g) + H2O|
|Peroxodisulfate||2,01||S2O8²– + 2e– → 2SO4²–|
|Hydrogen Peroxide||1,76||H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e– → 2H2O|
|Permanganate(a)||1,67||MnO4– + 4H+ + 3e– → MnO2(s) + 2H2O|
|Hydroperoxyl Radical(a)||1,65||HO2 + 3H+ + 3e– → 2H2O|
|Permanganate(b)||1,51||MnO4– + 8H+ + 5e– → Mn²+ + 4H2O|
|Hydroperoxyl Radical(b)||1,44||HO2 + H+ +e– → H2O2|
|Dichromate||1,36||Cr2O7²– + 14H+ + 6e– → 2Cr³+ + 7H2O|
|Chlorine||1,36||Cl2(g) + 2e– → 2Cl–|
|Manganese Dioxide||1,23||MnO2 + 4H+ + 2e– → Mn²+ + 2H2O|
|Oxygen||1,23||O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e– → 2H2O|
|Bromine||1,07||Br2(l) + 2e– → 2Br–|