How does Ozone work in the Dairy Process?
The many uses of Ozone include being a part of the Dairy industry. As an effective surface sanitation agent for food safety and processing, ozone can also be applied in the dairy production – as a disinfectant, cleaning materials and surfaces in the food process, or as an ingredient in the dairy process.
Learn more about ozone surface sanitation in dairy process and how it can make dairy healthier, below.
Ozone treatment is a cost‐effective and eco‐friendly food processing technology, that is earning a reputation as an effective disinfectant while it destroys bacteria, virus, fungus, yeasts, molds and protozoa.
Surface sanitation in dairy industry is fundamental for the quality of the final product. Studies prove that a wide range of dairy products can benefit from the use of ozone treatment as a disinfectant.
Ozone has been used for the removal of milk residues and biofilm‐forming bacteria in steel surfaces and in milk processing, including fluid milk, powdered milk products and cheese.
How does it work?
Given that ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent active against many microorganisms, the ozone treatment prevents mold growth on dairy products, including cheese and milk and inactivate airborne molds in storage facilities.
Furthermore, ozone does not negatively impact the nutritional values or taste of the fluid milk. Also, ozone dissolved in water can be used to clean and disinfect the cow’s teats before milking, this will lower teat illness and mastitis.
This process reduces bacteria in the milk, cross contamination and the potential of disease on each cow. If ozonated water is used on dairy products, it should be used for your cleaning process, too.
Ozone can be applied to clean and disinfect dairy animals, milking equipment and the surfaces in dairy settings, while improving the animal’s health and the milk quality. Many hygienic problems may easily be prevented with the use of ozone.
Comparing to other chemicals, ozone leaves no residue in the food or food contact surfaces because it quickly auto decomposes in oxygen, reducing both the environmental impacts and costs of the company.
Also, because ozone must be generated onsite as opposed to conventional chemical sanitizers, it neither requires transportation nor storage.
Common problems in Dairy Production Units
Most diseases are transmitted by water, so disinfected process water is increasingly used in dairies. Ozone is 10 times more effective than chlorine in killing bacteria. Because of its high oxidation potential, ozone is very effective at killing bacteria on equipment surfaces (ozone is superior to chlorides for biofilms).
Ozone is the most advanced and safest method of sterilization in any food product production unit. Ozone dissolved in cold water reacts with organic material such as bacteria, viruses, milk solids and lime scale and significantly reduces bacterial counts. Highly ozonated water is the perfect disinfectant for clean plumbing in large dairy farms and dairy operations. Ozonated water can be used for cleaning milk drums and storage tanks as well as milk tankers.
The use of ozone therapy for a short exposure time is effective for spores and viruses. For example, studies have shown that ozone treatments produce a 60 recovery in infected cows without the administration of antibiotics. In addition, ozone is a safe method of treating common bovine diseases because it does not leave antibiotic residues in milk.
Effects of ozone on microbial populations of different dairy products
|Fluid milk||Listeria monocytogenes||Concentration: 2 g/L |
Time: 0, 5, 10 and 15 min
|A complete inactivation of Listeria was observed with a slight change in nutritional composition (carbohydrate and proteins) at the end of 15 min||(Sheelamary and Muthukumar. 2011)|
|Whole and |
|Pseudomonas aeruginosa||Concentration: 28 mg/L |
Time: 5, 10 and 15 min
|The inactivation was found to be depended on time and composition milk dependent||(Munhõs & others, 2019)|
|Staphylococcus aureus||Concentration: 34.7 mg/L and 44.8 mg/L|
Time: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min
|At 5 min there was no reduction in microbial load, but for treatment time above 5 min there was a steady decrease in log count. The ozone efficacy was also found to be dependent on fat content||(Couto & others, 2016)|
|Raw milk||Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMA), psychrotrophic bacteria, Staphylococcus sp.,Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella sp. and yeasts and molds||Concentration: 1.5 mg/L |
Time: 5, 10 and 15 min
Gaseous ozone were bubbled
|Even though there was no microbial reduction after first 5 min of treatment, a 0.4–1.0 log reduction of microbial count was observed after15 min of ozone bubbling||(M. Cavalcante & others, 2013b)|
|Coliform, and Staphylococcusaureus||Concentration: 0.5 ppm |
Time: 5, 10 and 15 min
|The study found that ozone treatment at 0.5 ppm for 5, 10 and 15 min is not sufficient to achieve roper shelf life and quality of raw milk||(Khudhir and Mahmood, 2017)
|Total bacterial count, yeast and molds, enterobacteriacae, psychrotrophes, S. aureus, Bacillus cerues, E. coli, S. typhimurium and Sh. Flexneri||Concentration: 400 mg/h|
Time: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min
|The ozone treatment for 20 min at 400 mg/h was found to be significantly improve the microbial quality of milk.||(Younis & others, 2019)|
|Total bacterial count||Concentration: 0.5 g/L|
Time: 5, 15 and 30 min
|Ozone treatment was found to be an alternative for conventional thermal processing||(Azhar and ALmosowy, 2020)|
|Yogurt and cheese brine||Total mesophilic count, coliforms, molds and yeasts,staphylococci, enterococci and lactic acid bacteria||Concentration: |
Time for yogurt: 0, 10, 20 and 30 seconds
Time for brine solution: 0, 10, 20 and 30 min
|Ozone flushing for 30s significantly increased the shelf-life of the yogurt; The protein content in cheese brine interfered with the ozone and decreased it antimicrobial efficiency||(Alexopoulos & others, 2017)|
|Cheese brine||Total viable count, microstaphylococci, yeasts||Concentration: 0.20, 0.40 and 2.0 mg/L |
Time: 30 and 60 min
|The microbial inactivation by ozone were time and concentration depended, the application of 0.40 mg/L of ozone for a prolonged period of 240 min were able to reduce the Total microbial count >2 log CFU/ml and yeast > 1 log CFU/ml||(Marilena Marino & others, 2015)|
|Cheese||Total bacterial count, coliform and yeast and mold||Concentration: 0.5 ppm |
Time: 10, 15 and 20 min
|Ozone treatment for 20 min was able to reduce the microbial count in soft cheese by 6 log cycles||(Zinasaab Khudhir and Mahdi, 2017)|
|Pseudomonas spp., Lactic acid bacteria, E. coli and coliforms||Concentration: 2, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L|
Time: 30 and 60 min
|The results showed that ozone treatment cannot be used to recover the product which is already contaminated with microbial load, but is effective in reducing the contamination in treatment water which intern could help in increasing the product shelf life||(Segat & others, 2014)|
|Italian Cheese||L. monocytogenes||Concentration: 4 ppm |
Time: 8 min
|L. monocytogenes counts were brought down from |
103 CFU/g to 10 CFU/g
|(Morandi & others, 2009)|
|Brazilan Cheese (Minas Frescal)||Lactic acid bacteria, |
Yeast and mold,
Total mesophilic count
|Concentration: 3 mg/L|
Time: 1 – 2 min
|Approximately 2 log reduction were observed||(D. Cavalcante & others, 2013a)|
|Butter||Coliform, Salmonella, Staphylococci, Yeast and mould, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus||Concentration: 3.5 g/h|
Time: 5, 15, 30 and 60 min
|Ozone was successful in inactivation all tested micro organism||(Durmuş Sert, Mercan and Kara, 2020)|
|Concentration: 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 mg/L|
Time: 5, 15, 30 and 60 min
|(Durmus¸ Sert and Mercan, 2020)|
|Milk powder||Cronobacter||Concentration: 2.8 and 5.3 mg/L |
Time: 120 min
|Ozone were successful in inactivating the selected microorganism with causing significant lipid oxidation, though the fat content of the milk played a major role in determining ozone efficacy||(Emrah Torlak and Sert, 2013)|
|Milk concentrate an whey protein cincentrates||Coliforms, Enterobacteriacaea, Staphylococi, Yeast and mold||Concentration: 3.5 g/L |
Time: 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min
|Inactivation of microbes ranged from 0.6 – 1 log CFU/ml||(Sert and Mercan, 2021)
(Source: Anandu Chandra Khanashyam, M. Anjaly Shanker, Anjineyulu Kothakota, Naveen Kumar Mahanti & R. Pandiselvam (2021): Ozone Applications in Milk and Meat Industry, Ozone: Science & Engineering, DOI: 10.1080/01919512.2021.1947776)
Improves dairy water quality;
Increases dairy product quality: powdered milk products, fluid milk and cheese;
Doesn’t affect the taste of any cheese or even the nutritional properties of any dairy product, including milk;
Removes milk residues and biofilm‐forming bacteria from stainless steel surfaces;
Destroys bacteria and microorganisms in storage dairy rooms;
Prevents the growth of surface molds on cheeses in storage areas during curing;
Avoids cross- contamination;
Reduces dramatically the mastitis and illness in cow’s teat;
Offers cost savings vs chemical.
A. C. KHANASHYAM, M. A. SHANKER, A. KOTHAKOTA, N. KUMAR MAHANTI, R. PANDISELVAN | July 1st | Ozone Applications in Milk and Meat Industry
JÉSSICA R. ORLANDIN, LUCIANA C. MACHADO, CARLOS E. AMBRÓSIO, VALTER TRAVAGLI | July 28th | Ozone and its derivatives in veterinary medicine: A careful appraisal
KARYNE RANGEL, FELLIPE O. CABRAL, GUILHERME C. LECHUGA & OTHERS | December 26th | Detrimental Effect of Ozone on Pathogenic Bacteria
GIUSEPPINA MOCCIA, FRANCESCO DE CARO, CONCETTA PIRONTI, GIOVANNI BOCCIA, MARIO CAPUNZO, ANNA BORRELI, ORIANA MOTA | October 30th | Development and Improvement of an Effective Method for Air and Surfaces Disinfection with Ozone Gas as a Decontaminating Agent
FABIO MASOTTI, LISA VALLONE, SILVIA RANZINI, TIZIANA SILVETTI, STEFANO MORANDI, MILENA BRASCA | March | Effectiveness of air disinfection by ozonation or hydrogen peroxide aerosolization in dairy environments
AMEER MEGAHED, BRIAN ALDRIDGE, JAMES LOWE | May 14th | The microbial killing capacity of aqueous and gaseous ozone on different surfaces contaminated with dairy cattle manure
MUSTAFA KEMAL SARIBAY | September | Recovery Effect of Intramammary Ozone Therapy for Acute Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows
M. MARTINELLI, F. GIOVANNANGELI, S. ROTUNNO, C. M. TROMBETTA, E. MONTOMOLI | March | Water and air ozone treatment as an alternative sanitizing technology
AGNIESZKA JOANNA BRODOWSKA, AGNIESZKA NOWAK, KRYSZTOF SMIGIELSKI | July 6th | Ozone in the food industry: Principles of ozone treatment, mechanisms of action, and applications: An overview
BRUCE HINKLE | July 20th | Ozone as an Added Protection in Food Processing Chain
FDA (U.S. Food & Drug Administration) | August 9th | Good Manufacturing Practices for the 21st Century for Food Processing (2004 Study) Appendix A: Annotated Bibliography on Food Safety Problems and Recommended Controls
A. PASCUAL, LLORCA A. CANUT | 2007 | Use of ozone in food industries for reducing the environmental impact of cleaning and disinfection activities
SHIGEZO NAITO, HIROFUMI TAKAHARA | February 24th | Ozone Contribution in Food Industry in Japan
A. OGATA, H. NAGAHATA | July | Intramammary application of ozone therapy to acute clinical mastitis in dairy cows